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On the islands of polar marine climate, it obmywają cold sea currents and strong winds smagają (western wind zone), the total annual precipitation is about 600 mm (rainfall evenly distributed in the year, the lack of large rain), the mean monthly air temperature ranges from 4 ° C in July (winter) to 13 ° C in January (summer), extreme temperature to -8 ° C in winter and 24 ° C in summer. Often there is a sudden deterioration in weather conditions – with their due at the time of the Falklands War of 64 days of the conflict, including the 27 it was not possible to use aviation.
The Falkland Islands has a modern telecommunications network providing fixed line telephone and ADSL and dial-up internet services in Stanley.
Telephony is provided to outlying settlements using microwave radio.
A GSM mobile network was installed in 2005 which provided coverage of Stanley, Mount Pleasant and surrounding areas.
The Falkland Islands comprise two main islands, East Falkland and West Falkland (in Spanish Isla Gran Malvina and Isla Soledad respectively), and about 776 small islands. The total land area is 4,700 square miles (12,000 km2) , approximately the same area as Connecticut or Northern Ireland, with a coastline estimated at 800 square miles (2,100 km2).
Much of the land is part of the two main islands separated by the Falkland Sound: East Falkland, home to the capital of Stanley and the majority of the population, and West Falkland. Both islands have mountain ranges, rising to 2,313 feet (705 m) at Mount Usborne on East Falkland. There are also some boggy plains, most notably Lafonia, on the southern half of East Falkland. Virtually the entire area of the islands is used as pasture for sheep.
Smaller islands surround the main two. They include Barren Island, Beaver Island, Bleaker Island, Carcass Island, George Island, Keppel Island, Lively Island, New Island, Pebble Island, Saunders Island, Sealion Island, Speedwell Island, Staats Island, Weddell Island, and West Point Island. The Jason Islands lie to the north west of the main archipelago, and Beauchene Island some distance to its south. Speedwell Island and George Island are split from East Falkland by Eagle Passage.
The islands claim a territorial sea of 12 nautical miles (22 km/14 mi) and an exclusive fishing zone of 200 nautical miles (370 km/230 mi), which has been a source of disagreement with Argentina.
Surrounded by cool South Atlantic waters, the Falkland Islands have a climate very much influenced by the ocean with a narrow annual temperature range. January averages about 9 °C, with average daily high of 13 °C, while July averages about 2 °C with average daily high 4 °C. Rainfall is relatively low at about 24 inches (610 mm). Humidity and winds, however, are constantly high. Snow is rare, but can occur at almost any time of year.
Biogeographically, the Falkland Islands are classified as part of the Neotropical realm, together with South America. It is also classified as part of the Antarctic Floristic Kingdom.
There were no air links to the islands until 1971, when the Argentine Air Force (FAA), which operates the state airline LADE, began amphibious flights between Comodoro Rivadavia and Stanley using Grumman HU-16 Albatross aircraft.Following a FAA request, the UK and Argentina reached an agreement for the FAA to construct the first runway. Flights began using Fokker F27 and continued with Fokker F28 aircraft twice a week until 1982. This was the only air link to the islands. YPF, the Argentine national oil and gas company, now part of Repsol YPF, supplied the islands’ energy needs.
The islands are referred to in the English language as “[The] Falkland Islands”. This name dates from an expedition led by John Strong in 1690, who named the islands after his patron, Anthony Cary, 5th Viscount Falkland. The Spanish name for the islands, “Islas Malvinas”, is derived from the French name “Îles Malouines”, bestowed in 1764 by Louis Antoine de Bougainville, after the mariners and fishermen from the Breton port of Saint-Malo who became the island’s first known settlers. The ISO designation is “Falkland Islands (Malvinas)”.
As a result of the continuing sovereignty dispute, the use of many Spanish names is considered offensive in the Falkland Islands, particularly those associated with the 1982 invasion of the Falkland Islands. General Sir Jeremy Moore would not allow the use of Islas Malvinas in the surrender document, dismissing it as a propaganda term.
Migratory birds and mammals return to the Falklands beaches and headlands between October and March. December and January are the best months for wildlife watching, as the extended daylight hours provide ample viewing time as well as opportunity for other outdoor activities. However, December and January are also the wettest months, though rain falls throughout the year. October through April is the peak tourist season, but that’s not saying much.
Annual sports meetings are the islands other ‘wildlife’ attraction, with events including horse racing, bull riding and sheepdog trials. Stanley’s sports meetings take place December 26-27. ‘In camp’, that’s anywhere outside Stanley to locals, these sports meetings are usually held at the end of the shearing season (late February). Sea trout season runs from September through April, with the best fishing starting in late February.
The Falkland Islands (Spanish: Islas Malvinas) are an archipelago in the South Atlantic Ocean, located 300 miles (483 km) from the coast of Argentina, 671 miles (1,080 km) west of the Shag Rocks (South Georgia), and 584 miles (940 km) north of the British Antarctic Territory (which overlaps with the Argentine and Chilean claims to Antarctica in that region). They consist of two main islands, East Falkland and West Falkland, together with 776 smaller islands. Stanley, on East Falkland, is the capital. The islands are a self-governing Overseas Territory of the United Kingdom, but have been the subject of a claim to sovereignty by Argentina since the re-assertion of British sovereignty in 1833.
In pursuit of this claim in 1982, the islands were invaded by Argentina, precipitating the two-month-long undeclared Falklands War between Argentina and the United Kingdom, which resulted in the defeat and withdrawal of Argentine forces. Since the war there has been strong economic growth in both fisheries and tourism. The inhabitants of the islands are full British citizens (since a 1983 Act) and under Argentine Law are eligible for Argentine citizenship. Many trace their origins on the islands to early 19th-century Scottish immigration. The islands’ residents reject the Argentine sovereignty claim.